What is authoritative parenting?
The authoritative parenting style is an approach to child-rearing that combines warmth, sensitivity, and the setting of limits. Parents use positive reinforcement and reasoning to guide children. They avoid resorting to threats or punishments.
This approach is common in educated, middle class families, and linked with superior child outcomes throughout the world.
For example, kids raised by authoritative parents are more likely to become independent, self-reliant, socially accepted, academically successful, and well-behaved. They are also less likely to report depression and anxiety, and less likely to engage in antisocial behavior like delinquency and drug use. And research suggests that having at least one authoritative parent can make a big difference (Fletcher et al 1999).
But what exactly sets the authoritative parenting style apart? How is it different from authoritarian parenting? How do experts decide if you’re an authoritative parent, or practicing some other parenting style? And why, exactly, do researchers think authoritativeness breeds success?
Here is an overview.
The authoritative parenting style was first defined by developmental psychologist Diane Baumrind, who proposed a new system for classifying parents. Her idea was to focus on the way parents attempted to control their kids (Baumrind 1966).
She recognized three major approaches to parental control:
In subsequent studies, researchers also recognized a fourth style, sometimes called “neglectful parenting,” where parents lack warmth and fail to enforce standards (Maccoby and Martin 1983).
There is overwhelming evidence that kids need parental warmth to thrive. Nurturing, responsive parenting leads to better emotional, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. As I explain elsewhere, it even protects kids from toxic stress.
So the parenting styles that feature warmth and responsiveness — authoritative and permissive parenting — are better overall than the remaining alternatives.
There is also evidence favoring authoritative parenting as the “best” style. For example, when it comes to reducing sibling conflicts, authoritative approach might be the only effective option (Liu et al 2022). And the cross-cultural trend — observed in most studies — is that authoritative parenting is linked with better academic performance (Pinquart 2016; Pinquart and Kauser 2017; Llorca et al 2017; Hayek et al 2022).
Are there any complications or controversies? Sure. As I note below, the effects of parenting style are partly influenced by culture. And a group of researchers in Spain have argued that “permissive” or “indulgent” parenting is better than authoritative parenting for chidren’s emotional well-being (e.g., Garcia et al 2019; Fuentes et al 2021; Alcaide et al 2023).
But I don’t think these points move the needle very much. Authoritative parenting has advantages over authoritarian parenting in most cultural settings, and when you delve into the details of the “indulgent” versus “authoritative” debate, it looks like like the argument is really over semantics.
The Spanish research group seems to be equating “authoritative parenting” with practices that I would call authoritarian. And their profile of “indulgent” parenting seems to align closely with what other researchers usually refer to as “authoritative.” The research offers important insights into the kind of bossiness and intrusiveness that is linked with worse outcomes. But — after you adjust for the researchers different use of terminology — the results don’t seem to challenge the benefits of authoritative parenting. Read more in this Parenting Science article.
Permissive parents and authoritative parents share an approach that is responsive, nurturing, and involved. Both show respect for children as independent beings. But unlike permissive parents, authoritative parents don’t let their kids get away with bad behavior. Authoritative parents take a firm stand, insisting that their kids to behave responsibly.
It’s all about the exercise of power. Think of the authoritarian parent as a drill sergeant. Do it now, or else! The drill sergeant tries to get his way through threats and coercion.
By contrast, the authoritative parent aims to inspire cooperation by fostering positive feelings, and teaching kids the reasons for the rules.
Authoritative parents communicate lots of warmth to their kids. They avoid using harsh or arbitrary punishments. They are less likely to shame their kids, or attempt to control kids by withdrawing love. And when their children make mistakes or misbehave, they talk with them about it. They listen to their children’s concerns, and take them into account. They help kids figure out what went wrong, and explain the consequences of good and bad behavior.
So while they have similar-looking names, there is a big difference between authoritative and authoritarian parenting.
Authoritative parents aren’t just trying to enforce compliance. They recognize and encourage a child’s sense of autonomy. They want kids to develop self-discipline, maturity, and a respect for others. And they approach these goals by offering concrete advice and emotional support.
Summed up, some researchers have described it this way: Authoritative parents are highly demanding (like authoritarian parents), but they are also very responsive to their children’s needs (Maccoby and Martin 1983).
That’s the classic definition of the authoritative parenting style, and, using this definition, researchers have identified the authoritative parents throughout the world.
But not every authoritative parent runs his or her family the same way. There is some important variation, particularly when it comes to how much of a “vote” children get during family decision-making.
It’s one thing to read a definition, and another to put it into practice. How can you tell if you are acting like an authoritative parent?
When researchers want to identify an individual’s parenting style, they often use a kind of rubric or questionnaire. For example, one popular questionnaire was developed by Clyde Robinson and his colleagues (1995). It presents the parent with a series of statements, and asks the parent to rate his or her agreement on a four-point scale (1= “almost never true”, 4 = “almost always true”).
Authoritative parents tend to agree with statements like these:
And parents are judged to be less authoritative if they agree with these statements:
This is just a small sample of the kinds of items that appear on the questionnaire. Parents don’t have to tick all the “right” boxes. Instead, they are given an overall score, and their parenting style is classified as “authoritative” if it reaches a particular threshold.
But there isn’t any one, universally-accepted litmus test.
For instance, the statements above might make it seem that you have to run your family like a mini-democracy in order to be authoritative. But that isn’t the case.
Or maybe you’re wondering about which rules you are supposed to impose. Keep your room clean? Don’t play video games after you’ve finished your homework? Depending on your priorities, beliefs, and assessment of your child’s maturity level, you might think these are important rules. Or you might not.
As we’ll see below, the classic definition of authoritative parenting allows for variation in these areas. And different researchers have used different screening tools to decide who’s “authoritative.”
For example, the researchers working in Spain (cited above) have scored parents as “authoritative” if they agreed with statements like “I insist that my children do exactly what they are told” (Alcaide et al 2023), or made greater use of punishment to control behavior (Garcia et al 2019). Does this match up with what most parenting experts mean when they talk about authoritative parenting? Probably not.
Not necessarily. For example, when researchers surveyed parents in four different countries — China, the United States, Russia, and Australia– they found an interesting pattern.
In the U.S. and Australia, authoritative parents were very likely to emphasize certain democratic practices, like taking a child’s preferences into account when making family plans, or encouraging a child to express his or her own opinions (Robinson et al 1997).
But in China and Russia, authoritative parents didn’t take their children’s preferences into account when making family plans. And most authoritative parents from China didn’t encourage kids to voice their own opinions — not if those opinions were in conflict with a parent’s views (Robinson et al 1996).
What, then, did authoritative parents have in common across all four countries?
They shared a similar approach to discipline. When their children misbehaved, they talked with them, and explained the reasons for the rules (Robinson et al 1997). Let’s take a closer look.
Researchers call it “inductive discipline,” and there is evidence that it helps kids become more empathic, helpful, conscientious, and kind to others (Krevans and Gibbs 1996; Knafo and Plomin 2006). It may also promote the development of morality (Patrick and Gibbs 2016), and lower a child’s risk for developing aggressive or defiant behavior problems (Choe et al 2013; Arsenio and Ramos-Marcuse 2014). How does it work?
Inductive discipline focuses on teaching kids to think — constructively and non-selfishly — about how their behavior affects others. The idea is that instead of trying to enforce good behavior through threats and punishments, you provide kids with the internal tools to regulate themselves. Here are the key components.
As noted in the introduction, most studies report that authoritative parenting is linked with the best child outcomes. Kids tend to experience fewer behavior problems and perform better in school. Compared with children from authoritarian homes, they are less likely to engage in delinquency and substance use (e.g., Lamborn et al 1991; Steinberg et al 1992; Querido et al 2002; Benchaya et al 2011; Luyckx et al 2011).
Why? In part, it’s because authoritative practices give kids the tools they need to succeed. For instance, as we’ve just seen, inductive discipline can actively teach kids to consider the impact of their behavior on others. So little wonder if this gives their moral reasoning skills a boost (Dekovic and Janssens 1992; Krevans and Gibb 1996; Kerr et al 2004). Some other examples?
When parents are cold or psychologically controlling, their kids are more likely to develop “internalizing” mental health problems, like anxiety and depression. But affectionate, sensitive, parenting has the opposite effect. From an early age, warmth and responsiveness helps foster attachment security, which reduces a child’s risk of developing internalizing problems (Izett et al 2021; Brumariu and Kerns 2010). Moreover, studies suggest that adolescents are less likely to experience anxiety and depression if their parents are warm and supportive of autonomy (Gorostiaga et al 2019; Wang et al 2021).
We know from everyday experience that people become more confident about their abilities when they get to practice doing things for themselves. This may explain links between authoritative parenting, self-reliance, better problem-solving, and resourcefulness (e.g., Türkel and Tezer 2008; Rothrauff et al 2009; Lamborn et al 1991; Pratt et al 1988; Kamins and Dweck 1999; Luyckx et al 2011).
In places as different as China and Spain, the story is the same: Kids tend to grow up with higher levels of self-esteem when their parents display lots of affection and cheer (Zhang et al 2017; Pérez-Fuentes et al 2019; Peng et al 2021). By contrast, negativity and psychological control put kids at risk for low self-esteem.
Finding ways to say yes. Praising kids for good choices. Making sure that most family interactions are pleasant and positive. When parents learn these positive parenting techniques, their children’s behavior problems tend to improve. And positivity appears to boost a child’s intellectual performance as well (Kamins and Dweck 1999; Schmittmann et al 2006; van Duijvenvoorde et al 2008). Learn more in my articles, “Positive parenting tips” and “Correcting behavior: The magic words that help kids cope with mistakes.”
It’s hard to learn self-regulation skills if your parent is making all the choices for you (or stressing you out with harsh discipline). It’s also hard if your parent lets bad behavior slide, or is inconsistent with follow-up. But if your parent uses authoritative techniques — respecting your autonomy, setting reasonable expectations, explaining the reason for rules, and teaching you how to cope with emotions and impulses — you’ve got a recipe for success.
Parents need to be smart and flexible about the timing of their talks (hint: it’s better to back off while your toddler is in the middle of a tantrum). But — in general — studies support the idea that authoritative parenting and inductive discipline foster better self-control and emotional regulation (Piotrowski et al 2013; Eisenberg et al 2015; LeCuyer and Swanson 2017; Valcan et al 2019).
When we use inductive discipline, we aren’t just teaching self-regulation. We’re also acting as role models — demonstrating techniques for resolving conflicts and soothing bad feelings. Kids learn how to compromise, negotiate and cooperate, and this may explain why preschoolers from authoritative homes experience fewer aggressive behavior problems (e.g., Choe et al 2013; Yamagata 2013).
It makes sense, doesn’t it? If your parent shows warmth and takes the time to reason with you, you’re going to feel more connected. And there’s evidence that this happens. The children of authoritative parents report feeling closer to their parents (Bi et al 2018) and siblings (Liu and Rahman 2022).
Decades ago, researchers working in the Netherlands made a fascinating discovery. They watched as children attempted to solve a series of puzzle-tasks with their parents, and they took note of parental behavior. How often did parents voice disapproval, or try to take over a task? How often did parents show warmth? Did they expect their kids to behave with age-appropriate maturity? When guiding behavior, did they do so in ways that respected the child’s autonomy? (“What would happen if we tried this…?”)
As it turned out, parents who behaved more authoritatively during the puzzle task had kids who were rated as more prosocial—helpful and kind—by their teachers and peers (Dekovic and Janssens 1992).
Since that time, researchers have confirmed this lnik in studies conducted throughout the world (Dekovic and Janssens 1992; Putnick et al 2018; Xiao et al 2018; Zhou et al 2022). Why is parental warmth connected with prosociality in children? Maybe kids are imitating the kindness and helpfulness that their parents model. Or maybe all that calming, stress-busting, parental warmth is making it easier for kids to turn their attention to the needs of others.
But whatever the case, there’s reason to think that kids increase prosocial behavior after being exposed to warm, responsive care. For example, in a study tracking more than a thousand kids from 8 countries (Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States), kids who experienced more parental warmth at the age of 9 were more likely to show high levels of prosocial behavior as adolescents (Pastorelli et al 2021).
This is an important factor to consider. After all, we know that parenting can be stressful –especially if you have to deal with a lot of difficult, disruptive behavior. You might prefer to follow authoritative practices, but you get stressed or overwhelmed, and it pushes you in other directions. Maybe you lose your temper and get punitive. Or maybe you give up on trying to enforce good behavior. You let things slide.
Somebody looking from the outside might think, “Wow, that kid’s behavior is really messed up. It must be caused by the parent. Other kids – who are well-behaved – have parents who practice authoritative caregiving.”
But, in reality, this isn’t entirely down to parenting style. It’s just that authoritative parents are more likely to have started out with cooperative, easy kids.
Studies confirm that this is part of the story (e.g., Hutchison et al 2016; Lansford, Rothenberg, et al 2018), but the emphasis is on part. When researchers have controlled for child-driven effects, they’ve found ample evidence that parenting has an impact too.
Difficult kids are more likely to improve if their parents show warmth and avoid harsh punishments (e.g., Li et al 2021; Guo et al 2022; Olson et al 2017). Moreover, adopting an authoritative approach seems to help parents feel less stressed by their children’s challenging behavior (Delvecchio et al 2020).
This, too, is a valid question. It’s likely that the benefits of authoritative child-rearing are maximized when the whole community is organized along authoritative principles. For instance, when the school climate is authoritative, kids from authoritative families may find it easier to fit in (Pellerin 2004). In support of this hypothesis, studies confirm that parenting strategies tend to lead to better results when they are matched up with local perceptions of what’s normal (Lansford, Godwin, et al 2018; Rothenberg et al 2021).
Nevertheless, there is remarkable agreement across studies. In an analysis of 428 published studies, researchers compared child outcomes throughout the world. For every region of the globe, they found that the authoritative parenting style was associated with at least one positive child outcome (Pinquart and Kauser 2017). By contrast, authoritarian parenting was linked with at least one negative child outcome (Pinquart and Kauser 2017). The authors conclude that the authoritative approach is worth recommending everywhere.
Looking for practical advice? See my evidence-based positive parenting techniques, as well as these tips for acting as your child’s “emotion coach.”
If you’re interested in reading more about how researchers identify parenting styles, check out this Parenting Science overview, which includes a discussion of Diane Baumrind’s original model.
For more information about the difference between authoritarianism and the authoritative parenting style, see my article, “Authoritarian parenting: What happens to the kids?”
And for help drawing the line between permissiveness and authoritative parenting, see this Parenting Science article about the permissive parenting style.
Interested in the research supporting responsive, sensitive parenting? See my article about the health benefits, as well as my overview of the science of attachment parenting.
In addition, read more about the importance of treating children as independent, thinking beings, and the possibility of friendship between parents and children.
Alcaide M, Garcia OF, Queiroz P, Garcia F. 2023. Adjustment and maladjustment to later life: Evidence about early experiences in the family. Front Psychol. 14:1059458.
Arsenio W and Ramos-Marcuse F. 2014. Children’s moral emotions, narratives, and aggression: relations with maternal discipline and support. J Genet Psychol. 175(5-6):528-46.
Baumrind D. 1966. Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child Development, 37(4), 887-907.
Baumrind D. 1991. The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence 11(1): 56-95.
Bednar DE and Fisher TD. 2003. Peer referencing in adolescent decision making as a function of perceived parenting style. Adolescence. 38(152):607-21.
Benchaya MC, Bisch NK, Moreira TC, Ferigolo M, and Barros HM. 2011. Non-authoritative parents and impact on drug use: the perception of adolescent children. J Pediatr (Rio J). 87(3):238-44
Bi X, Yang Y, Li H, Wang M, Zhang W, Deater-Deckard K. 2018. Parenting Styles and Parent-Adolescent Relationships: The Mediating Roles of Behavioral Autonomy and Parental Authority. Front Psychol. 9:2187.
Brumariu LE, Kerns KA. 2010. Parent-child attachment and internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence: a review of empirical findings and future directions. Dev Psychopathol. 22(1):177-203.
Chao R. 2001. Extending research on the consequences of parenting style for Chinese Americans and European Americans. Child Development 72: 1832-1843.
Choe DE, Olson SL, and Sameroff AJ. 2013. The interplay of externalizing problems and physical and inductive discipline during childhood. Dev Psychol. 49(11):2029-39.
Costa Martins M, Santos AF, Fernandes M, Veríssimo M. 2021. Attachment and the Development of Moral Emotions in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Children (Basel). 8(10):915
Dekovic M and Janssens JM. 1992. Parents’ child: Rearing style and child’s sociometric status.” Developmental Psychology 28(5): 925-932.
Delvecchio E, Germani A, Raspa V, Lis A, Mazzeschi C. 2020. Parenting Styles and Child’s Well-Being: The Mediating Role of the Perceived Parental Stress. Eur J Psychol. 16(3):514-531.
Eisenberg N, Taylor ZE, Widaman KF, Spinrad TL. 2015. Externalizing symptoms, effortful control, and intrusive parenting: A test of bidirectional longitudinal relations during early childhood. Dev Psychopathol. 27(4 Pt 1):953-68
Fletcher A, Steinberg L, and Sellers E. 1999. Adolescents’ well-being as a function of perceived inter-parent inconsistency. Journal of Marriage and the Family 61: 300-310.
Fuentes MC, Garcia OF, Alcaide M, Garcia-Ros R, Garcia F. 2022. Analyzing when parental warmth but without parental strictness leads to more adolescent empathy and self-concept: Evidence from Spanish homes. Front Psychol. 13:1060821.
Garcia OF, Lopez-Fernandez O, Serra E. 2021. Raising Spanish Children With an Antisocial Tendency: Do We Know What the Optimal Parenting Style Is? J Interpers Violence. 36(13-14):6117-6144.
Guo Y, Zhang YQ, Wu CA, Yin XN, Zhang JY, Wu JB, Jing J, Jin Y, Lin L, Chen WQ. 2022. Bidirectional associations between parenting styles and conduct problems in Chinese preschool children: the Shenzhen Longhua Child Cohort Study. Psychol Health Med. 27(9):2007-2020.
Hayek J, Schneider F, Lahoud N, Tueni M, de Vries H. 2022. Authoritative parenting stimulates academic achievement, also partly via self-efficacy and intention towards getting good grades. PLoS One 17(3):e0265595.
Hutchison L, Feder M, Abar B, Winsler A. 2016. Relations between parenting stress, parenting style, and child executive functioning for children with ADHD or autism. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 25(12):3644–3656.
Izett E, Rooney R, Prescott SL, De Palma M, McDevitt M. 2021. Prevention of Mental Health Difficulties for Children Aged 0-3 Years: A Review. Front Psychol. 11:500361.
Kamins M and Dweck C. 1999. Person versus process praise and criticism:Implications for contingent self-worth and coping. Developmental Psychology 30(3): 835-847.
Kerr DC, Lopez NL, Olson SL, and Sameroff AJ. 2004. Parental Discipline and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Early Childhood: The Roles of Moral Regulation and Child Gender. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 32(4):369-83.
Knafo A, Plomin R. 2006 Parental discipline and affection and children’s prosocial behavior: genetic and environmental links. J Pers Soc Psychol. 90(1):147-164.
Knafo A and Plomin R. 2008. Prosocial behavior from early to middle childhood: genetic and environmental influences on stability and change. Developmental psychology 42(5):771-86.
Krevans J and Gibbs JC. 1996. Parents’ use of inductive discipline: relations to children’s empathy and prosocial behavior. Child Development, 67: 3263-77.
Lamborn SD, Mants NS, Steinberg L, and Dornbusch SM. 1991. Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Development 62: 1049-1065.
Lansford JE, Godwin J, Zelli A, Al-Hassan SM, Bacchini D, Bombi AS, Bornstein MH, Chang L, Chen B-B, Deater-Deckard K, Di Giunta L, Dodge KA, Malone PS, Oburu P, Pastorelli C, Skinner AT, Sorbring E, Steinberg L, Tapanya S, Alampay LP, and Uribe Tirado LM. 2018. Longitudinal associations between parenting and youth adjustment in twelve cultural groups: Cultural normativeness of parenting as a moderator. Developmental Psychology 54: 362–377.
Lansford JE, Rothenberg WA, Jensen TM, Lippold MA, Bacchini D, Bornstein MH, Chang L, Deater-Deckard K, Di Giunta L, Dodge KA, Malone PS, Oburu P, Pastorelli C, Skinner AT, Sorbring E, Steinberg L, Tapanya S, Uribe Tirado LM, Alampay LP, Al-Hassan SM. 2018. Bidirectional Relations Between Parenting and Behavior Problems From Age 8 to 13 in Nine Countries. J Res Adolesc. 28(3):571-590.
LeCuyer EA and Swanson DP. 2017. A Within-Group Analysis of African American Mothers’ Authoritarian Attitudes, Limit-Setting and Children’s Self-Regulation. J Child Fam Stud. 26(3):833-842.
Li N, Peng J, Li Y. 2021. Effects and Moderators of Triple P on the Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems of Children: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front Psychol. 12:709851.
Liu C and Rahman MNA. 2022. Relationships between parenting style and sibling conflicts: A meta-analysis. Front Psychol. 13:936253.
Llorca A, Cristina Richaud M, Malonda E. 2017. Parenting, Peer Relationships, Academic Self-efficacy, and Academic Achievement: Direct and Mediating Effects. Front Psychol. 8:2120.
Luyckx K, Tildesley EA, Soenens B, Andrews JA, Hampson SE, Peterson M, and Duriez B. 2011. Parenting and trajectories of children’s maladaptive behaviors: a 12-year prospective community study. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 40(3):468-78.
Maccoby EE and Martin JA. 1983. Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (ed) and E. M. Hetherington (vol. ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed., pp. 1-101). New York: Wiley.
Martinez I, Garcia F, Veiga F, Garcia OF, Rodrigues Y, Serra E. 2020. Parenting styles, internalization of values and self-esteem: a cross-cultural study in Spain, Portugal and Brazil. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17:2370.
Olson SL, Choe DE, Sameroff AJ. 2017. Trajectories of child externalizing problems between ages 3 and 10 years: Contributions of children’s early effortful control, theory of mind, and parenting experiences. Dev Psychopathol. 29(4):1333-1351.
Osorio A and González-Cámara M. 2016. Testing the alleged superiority of the indulgent parenting style among Spanish adolescents. Psicothema. 28(4):414-420.
Pastorelli C, Zuffianò A, Lansford JE, Thartori E, Bornstein MH, Chang L, Deater-Deckard K, Di Giunta L, Dodge KA, Gurdal S, Liu Q, Long Q, Oburu P, Skinner AT, Sorbring E, Steinberg L, Tapanya S, Uribe Tirado LM, Yotanyamaneewong S, Al-Hassan S, Peña Alampay L, Bacchini D. 2021. Positive Youth Development: Parental Warmth, Values, and Prosocial Behavior in 11 Cultural Groups. J Youth Dev. 16(2-3):379-401.
Patrick RB and Gibbs JC. 2016. Maternal Acceptance: Its Contribution to Children’s Favorable Perceptions of Discipline and Moral Identity. J Genet Psychol. 177(3):73-84.
Pellerin LA. 2005. Applying Baumrind’s parenting typology to high schools: Toward a middle-range theory of authoritative socialization. Social Science Research 34: 283-303.
Peng B, Hu N, Yu H, Xiao H, Luo J. 2021. Parenting Style and Adolescent Mental Health: The Chain Mediating Effects of Self-Esteem and Psychological Inflexibility. Front Psychol. 12:738170.
Pérez-Fuentes MDC, Molero Jurado MDM, Gázquez Linares JJ, Oropesa Ruiz NF, Simón Márquez MDM, Saracostti M. 2019. Parenting Practices, Life Satisfaction, and the Role of Self-Esteem in Adolescents. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 16(20):4045.
Pinquart M. 2016. Associations of Parenting Styles and Dimensions with Academic Achievement in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-analysis. Educ Psychol Rev. 28: 475–493.
Pinquart M and Kauser R. 2017. Do the Associations of Parenting Styles With Behavior Problems and Academic Achievement Vary by Culture? Results From a Meta-Analysis. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 24(1):75-100.
Piotrowski JT, Lapierre MA, Linebarger DL. 2013. Investigating Correlates of Self-Regulation in Early Childhood with a Representative Sample of English-Speaking American Families. J Child Fam Stud 22(3):423-436.
Pratt MW, Kerig P, Cowan PA, and Cowan CP. 1988. Mothers and fathers teaching 3-year-olds: Authoritative parenting and adult scaffolding of young children’s learning. Developmental Psychology. Vol 24(6): 832-839.
Putnick DL, Bornstein MH, Lansford JE, Chang L, Deater-Deckard K, Di Giunta L, Dodge KA, Malone PS, Oburu P, Pastorelli C, Skinner AT, Sorbring E, Tapanya S, Uribe Tirado LM, Zelli A, Alampay LP, Al-Hassan SM, Bacchini D, Bombi AS. 2018. Parental acceptance-rejection and child prosocial behavior: Developmental transactions across the transition to adolescence in nine countries, mothers and fathers, and girls and boys. Dev Psychol. 54(10):1881-1890.
Querido JG, Warner TD, and Eyberg SM. 2002. Parenting Styles and Child Behavior in African American Families of Preschool Children Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 31(2): 272 – 277.
Robinson CC, Mandleco BL, Olsen SF and Hart CH. 1995. Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Development of a new measure for parents of preschool-age children. Psychological Report77: 819-830.
Robinson CC, Hart CH, Mandleco BL, and Olsen SF. 1996. Psychometric support for a new measure of authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Cross cultural connections. Paper presented in Symposium: New measures of parental child-rearing practices developed in different cultural contexts, XIVth Biennial International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development Conference, Quebec City, Canada, August 12-16, 1996.
Rothenberg WA, Lansford JE, Bacchini D, Bornstein MH, Chang L, Deater-Deckard K, Di Giunta L, Dodge KA, Malone PS, Oburu P, Pastorelli C, Skinner AT, Sorbring E, Steinberg L, Tapanya S, Tirado LMU, Yotanyamaneewong S, Alampay LP, Al-Hassan SM. 2020. Cross-cultural effects of parent warmth and control on aggression and rule-breaking from ages 8 to 13. Aggress Behav. 46(4):327-340.
Rothenberg WA, Lansford JE, Bornstein MH, Uribe Tirado LM, Yotanyamaneewong S, Alampay LP, Al-Hassan SM, Bacchini D, Chang L, Deater-Deckard K, Di Giunta L, Dodge KA, Gurdal S, Liu Q, Long Q, Malone PS, Oburu P, Pastorelli C, Skinner AT, Sorbring E, Tapanya S, Steinberg L. 2021. Cross-Cultural Associations of Four Parenting Behaviors With Child Flourishing: Examining Cultural Specificity and Commonality in Cultural Normativeness and Intergenerational Transmission Processes. Child Dev. 92(6):e1138-e1153.
Rothrauff TC, Cooney TM, and An JS. 2009. Remembered parenting styles and adjustment in middle and late adulthood. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 64(1):137-46.
Steinberg L. 2001. We know some things: Parent-adolescent relationshgips in retrospect and prospect. Journal of research on adolescence 11(1): 1-19.
Türkel YD and Tezer E. 2008. Parenting styles and learned resourcefulness of Turkish adolescents. Adolescence. 43(169):143-52.
Valcan DS, Davis H, and Pino-Pasternak D. 2018. Parental behaviors predicting early childhood executive functions: a meta-analysis. Educ. Psychol. Rev. 30: 607–649.
Xiao SX. 2016. Inductive Discipline and Children’s Prosocial Behavior: the Role of Parental Emotion Regulation Strategies. Dissertations ALL. Paper 507.
Xiao SX, Spinrad TL, Carter DB. 2018. Parental emotion regulation and preschoolers’ prosocial behavior: The mediating roles of parental warmth and inductive discipline. J Genet Psychol. 179(5):246-255.
Xiao SX, Spinrad TL, Carter DB. 2018. Parental emotion regulation and preschoolers’ prosocial behavior: The mediating roles of parental warmth and inductive discipline. J Genet Psychol. 9:1-10
Yamagata S, Takahashi Y, Ozaki K, Fujisawa KK, Nonaka K, and Ando J. 2013. Bidirectional influences between maternal parenting and children’s peer problems: a longitudinal monozygotic twin difference study. Dev Sci. 16(2):249-59.
Zhang W, Wei X, Ji L, Chen L, Deater-Deckard K. 2017. Reconsidering Parenting in Chinese Culture: Subtypes, Stability, and Change of Maternal Parenting Style During Early Adolescence. J Youth Adolesc. 46(5):1117-1136.
Zhou Z, Qu Y, Li X. 2022. Parental Collectivism Goals and Chinese Adolescents’ Prosocial Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Authoritative Parenting. J Youth Adolesc. 51(4):766-779.
This article is based on research published through April 2023. Portions of the text derive from earlier versions of the article, written by the same author. Content last modified 4/7/2023
image of mother talking to girl near bicycle by Dishant_S / istock
image of father with little boy on his shoulders by In The Light Photography / shutterstock
When it comes to women, work, and ADHD, it’s impossible to really dig deep without understanding the lingering biases that women and other underrepresented groups face. These biases, combined with the experience of being neurodivergent in a working world not made for them, create a perfect storm for masking, exhaustion, and burnout. Masking, specifically ADHD...
Can’t seem to make yourself fall asleep? I often hear individuals with ADHD say things like, “I want to sleep, but my body won’t let me” or, “It’s difficult to turn off my mind so that I can go to sleep.” Sure, keeping a regular wake schedule, expending energy throughout the day, and avoiding stimulating...